Greenhouse Gas Protocol

What is the Greenhouse Gas Protocol?

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol) is a globally recognized and widely adopted emissions accounting framework developed by the World Resources Institute (WRI) and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD).

It serves as a standardized tool for businesses and organizations to measure, manage, and report their greenhouse gas emissions.

The GHG Protocol provides clear guidelines and methodologies for quantifying emissions from various sources, including direct emissions from owned or controlled sources (Scope 1), indirect emissions from purchased electricity, heat, or steam (Scope 2), and other indirect emissions from the value chain (Scope 3).

By following the GHG Protocol, organizations can accurately track their emissions and understand their contribution to climate change. This data enables them to establish emission reduction targets, identify areas for improvement, and develop strategies to mitigate their environmental impact.

The GHG Protocol is not only used by companies to assess their own emissions but also by governments, NGOs, and other stakeholders to evaluate the effectiveness of climate policies and initiatives.

Its widespread adoption ensures consistency and comparability of emission data across organizations, facilitating transparency, accountability, and collaboration in addressing climate change on a global scale.

What are the 5 principles of the GHG Protocol?

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol) is guided by five fundamental principles that provide a foundation for accurate and consistent measurement and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions. These principles are as follows:


The GHG Protocol emphasizes the importance of focusing on emissions that are material and relevant to an organization's activities. It encourages organizations to identify and measure emissions sources that have significant environmental, social, and economic implications.


This principle stresses the need for organizations to account for and report on all relevant emissions sources within their operational boundaries. It includes both direct emissions (Scope 1) and indirect emissions from energy consumption (Scope 2), as well as significant indirect emissions from the value chain (Scope 3).

By capturing the complete picture, organizations can develop comprehensive emission reduction strategies.


Consistency is vital to ensure comparability and credibility of emissions data. The GHG Protocol provides standardized methodologies and calculation guidelines, enabling organizations to consistently measure and report their emissions over time and across different entities. This allows for meaningful comparisons and benchmarking.


The GHG Protocol emphasizes the importance of accuracy in emissions measurement and reporting. It encourages organizations to use reliable and verifiable data, appropriate calculation methodologies, and robust quality assurance and quality control procedures. Accuracy ensures that reported emissions reflect a true representation of an organization's environmental impact.


Transparency is a key principle of the GHG Protocol, promoting openness and disclosure of emissions data. Organizations are encouraged to share their emissions information publicly, allowing stakeholders to assess and verify their environmental performance.

Transparent reporting fosters accountability, facilitates collaboration, and drives continuous improvement in emissions management.

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Scope 1 emissions
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Scope 2 emissions
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Scope 3 emissions

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